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What Are Causes Of Infertility In Men? Lets Have A Quick Overview

Do you want to know what are the causes of infertility in men? About 1 in 7 pairs is infertile, which means they have not been able to have children despite having regular, unprotected sex for a year or more. 

In up to half of these couples, male infertility plays at least partial role. Male infertility can be caused by poor sperm production, poor sperm performance, or obstruction of semen delivery.

Diseases, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices and other factors can lead to male infertility. Failure to conceive can be stressful and painful, but there are a number of treatments available for male infertility.

Male infertility is a frequent health issue nowadays. Conceiving a child is a difficult endeavour fraught with a myriad of challenges. It’s good to know that infertility doesn’t always exclude a couple from having their own kid together.

Infertility can be treated and assisted by several medical techniques.

You and your partner are not alone if you are having difficulty conceiving a child. Ten percent to fifteen percent of American couples experience infertility each year. For most couples, infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after one year of regular, unprotected sexual activity between the partners.

You or your spouse may be at fault for your inability to conceive, or it might be a consequence of a number of circumstances working together.

You can increase your chances of becoming pregnant with the help of a variety of safe and effective treatments.

The term “male infertility” refers to any condition in a guy that makes it less likely that his female spouse will become pregnant.

Only around 13% of couples who try to conceive without using contraception succeed. In both sexes, infertility can arise from a wide variety of factors. More than a third of all cases of infertility may be traced back to the male partner.

Most of the time, this is because he is having issues with his sperm count or sperm transport.

What Is Male Infertility?

Infertility occurs when a guy is unable to successfully impregnate a female due to issues with his reproductive system. You, she, or both of you may have infertility concerns if you and a female partner have repeatedly engaged in unprotected intercourse for more than a year and the female partner has not conceived.

An issue with the reproductive system causes infertility. This condition prevents a person from having children. Anyone—male or female—is fair game.

If a guy suffers infertility, it’s because his reproductive system is malfunctioning. What this means is that you and your female partner are unable to conceive.

How Common Is Male Infertility?

Five million American couples struggle with infertility, making it a widespread problem. One in six couples who try to conceive experience infertility.

Attributable infertility has a male element in at least 50% of instances.

This indicates that around 10% of all American men who are trying to conceive are unable to do it.

What Happens Under Normal Conditions?

Tiny cells called sperm are produced by a man’s body. Ejaculation is the natural method by which sperm are transferred into a woman’s body during sexual activity.

The sperm is produced, stored, and transported by the male reproductive system. hormones, naturally occurring chemicals in the body, regulate this. The two testicles produce sperm and the male sex hormone testosterone.

The scrotum, a pouch of skin below the penis, is home to the testicles. A tube lies behind each testicle, where the sperm go to be stored for later use. The epididymis is the name for this canal.

The sperm go from the epididymis to another network of tubes right before ejaculation. The vas deferens is the common name for these ducts.

One end of each vas deferens travels from the epididymis to the pelvic area just beyond the bladder. Each vas deferens connects to the ejaculatory duct at this point, originating in the seminal vesicle.

Sperm combine with fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles during ejaculation. This is how sperm are created. The sperm subsequently exits the body via the urethra.

The production and release of healthy sperm are essential to a man’s ability to father children.

The sperm are transferred vaginally to the female partner. In order to reach her fallopian tubes, the sperm must first pass through her cervix. When a sperm and an egg unite, fertilisation occurs.

The system is only effective under optimal conditions of genetics, hormones, and the surrounding environment.

Is It Easy To Conceive?

No. There are a lot of moving parts in the process of conception.

  • Fertility in both sexes, defined as the generation of viable sperm and eggs.
  • Allows sperm to go unimpeded via the fallopian tubes and fertilise the egg.
  • Potential for fertilisation between sperm and egg.
  • Implantation refers to the process by which a fertilised egg (embryo) attaches to the wall of the uterus.
  • High-quality eggs/embryos.

At the end of the day, a healthy embryo and a conducive hormonal milieu in the female are both necessary for the pregnancy to progress to term. Infertility can occur if any of these components is compromised.

Which Males Are More Likely To Have Infertility?

For various reasons, certain guys are at a higher risk of infertility than others. A higher probability exists if…

  • Put simply, you’re either overweight or obese.
  • To put it another way, you’re well over the ripe old age of 40.
  • Radiation has contaminated your system.
  • Lead, calcium, pesticides, or mercury are just some of the environmental poisons to which you may have been exposed.
  • You’re an alcoholic, a smoker, or a user of recreational drugs.
  • You are taking a number of drugs, including cyproterone, flutamide, spironolactone, bicalutamide, cimetidine, and ketoconazole.
  • Your testicles are getting hotter due to the environment. People who use a sauna, hot tub, or wheelchair on a regular basis may feel this way.
  • Your testicles have a history of failing to drop (s).
  • Varicoceles, which are enlarged veins in the scrotum, run in your family.
  • Testosterone has made its way into your system. Some men with low testosterone levels require medical intervention in the form of injections, implants, or topical gel.

Symptoms Of Infertility 

Pregnancy is the most obvious sign of male infertility. It is possible that there are no other obvious signs or symptoms.

However, in some cases, the signs and symptoms are due to a underlying problem such as an inherited disease, hormonal imbalance, veins around the testicles, or a condition that prevents sperm from passing. Some of the signs and symptoms you may notice are:

Disruption of sexual function – for example, difficulty in ejaculating or only a small amount of fluid coming out; Decreased sexual desire; Or difficulty in maintaining the penis (penis) In the testicle area, you may experience pain, swelling, or a lump.

Respiratory tract infections that occur frequently. Failure to detect odors.

Any sign of chromosomal or hormonal imbalance, along with abnormal breast growth (gynecomastia), facial or body hair loss, should be investigated. Less than normal sperm count (less than 15 million sperm per milliliter or total sperm count less than 39 million per ejaculation)

What Are Causes Of Infertility In Men?

Understanding male fertility is a difficult process. Your spouse must have the following events to become pregnant: You must produce healthy sperm.

Initially, it involves the development and expansion of the male reproductive organs throughout puberty and adolescence.

To produce sperm, at least one of your testicles must be active, and your body must produce testosterone and other chemicals to stimulate and maintain sperm production. It is necessary for the sperm to transfer to the egg.

After the sperm is formed in the testicles, they are transported through small tubes until they merge with the semen and pass out of the penis (male reproductive organ). Sperm must have enough sperm. If the amount of sperm (number of sperm) in your semen is low,

So it reduces the chances that one of your sperm during pregnancy can fertilize your partner’s egg. When there are less than 15 million in one milliliter of semen or less than 39 million in a single ejaculation, it is considered as low sperm.

Sperm must be able to work and migrate to reproduce. If the movement of your sperm and the function of your sperm is bad or invasive, your sperm will not be able to reach or pierce your partner’s egg.

More On Causes

Your fertility may be affected by a variety of internal and external factors. Some possibilities are:

  • Infertility due to a lack of sperm production is known as azoospermia.
  • When sperm quality is low, this condition is known as oligospermia.
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, microdeletion syndrome, and dozens of other disorders have been linked to faulty genes.
  • Mutant sperm, often known as malformed sperm, are sperm that die before reaching the egg.
  • Illnesses include diabetes, autoimmune diseases, cystic fibrosis, and infections are just a few examples.
  • Supplements and prescription drugs, to be specific.
  • Overheating of the testicles, brought on by varicocele veins that are bigger than usual, might alter the quality or quantity of sperm.
  • Chemical or radiation therapy, or surgical removal of the testicles, are all options for treating testicular cancer (one or both).
  • Heavy drinking, smoking, drug abuse, and steroid usage are all bad for your health.
  • The testes have been injured.
  • Infertility can be caused by hormonal problems, such as those affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.


Sometimes male infertility is inevitable and cannot be avoided. On the other hand, you can try to prevent some of the recognized causes of male infertility. As an example: Don’t smoke.

Alcohol consumption should be limited or avoided altogether. Keep illegal drugs out of your system. Maintain a healthy weight by exercising regularly.

Do not sterilize unless absolutely necessary. Avoid things that cause the testicles to heat up for a long time. Stress should be reduced. Pesticides, heavy metals and other contaminants should be avoided at all costs.

Risk Factors 

Risk Factors Male infertility is linked to a number of risk factors, including: Tobacco use is prohibited. Use of alcoholic beverages Some illegal items are prohibited.

Being overweight or suffering from certain diseases in the past or present Exposure to toxic substances Excessive heat in the testicles As a result of damage to the testicles, previous sterilization or major abdominal or pelvic surgery is a contraindication.

Having a history of unexplained testicular prolapse, being born with fertility disease, or having a blood relative with a fertility defect are both causes of infertility.

Having certain medical conditions, such as tumors and chronic diseases, such as scale cell disease, can make you more susceptible to infection. Taking certain medications or undergoing medical procedures, such as surgery to treat cancer or radiation therapy, are examples of risk factors for heart disease.

Environmental Factors

The role of environmental factors. When exposed to certain environmental variables such as heat, toxic and excess chemicals, sperm production and function can be compromised. The following are examples of specific reasons: Chemicals used in industry.

Chemicals such as pesticides and herbicides, organic solvents and painting materials that have been exposed for a long time can reduce sperm count. Heavy metal exposure is a concern.

In addition, exposure to lead or other heavy metals can lead to infertility. Radiation, also called X-ray. Radiation exposure can cause a decrease in sperm production, however it will usually return to normal over time.

When exposed to large amounts of radiation, sperm production can be suppressed indefinitely. The testicles are getting hotter. Sperm production and function can be affected by high temperatures.

It is possible that regular use of sauna or hot tub may temporarily reduce your sperm count, however research on this is very limited and inconclusive.

Sitting for long periods of time, wearing restricted clothing, or working on a laptop computer for long periods of time can raise your scrotum temperature, which can lead to a slight decrease in sperm production. However, the results of the study are not final.

How Is Male Infertility Evaluated And Diagnosed?

A thorough physical exam is the first step in diagnosis, as it will reveal your current health status and allow the doctor to see any underlying medical issues that may be affecting your fertility.

You and your partner may be asked to talk to a doctor about your sexual behaviour.

If the patient’s medical history and physical findings rule out any potential causes of infertility, further testing may be recommended.

History And Physical Exam

Your doctor will ask about your medical background and any previous surgeries you’ve had. Your healthcare professional may ask you about any factors that may affect your fertility.

Issues with your reproductive system, inadequate hormone levels, illness, and accidents all fall within this category.

Your doctor may inquire about your medical history, including any diseases or conditions you had as a kid, as well as any current conditions or drugs you are taking.

Fertility can be impacted by factors like measles, diabetes, and steroid use. Your healthcare professional may also inquire as to whether or not you are a smoker, drinker, or user of recreational substances like marijuana.

If you’ve been around radiation, heavy metals, or pesticides, expect to be asked about it. Exposure to heavy metals is a problem (e.g. mercury, lead arsenic). All of these things can have an impact on a couple’s ability to conceive a child.

If your doctor examines you while you’re having sex, they’ll gain insight into your bodily processes. They will be interested in hearing about your attempts to conceive with your spouse. Your doctor may inquire as to whether or not you’ve experienced problems achieving or maintaining an erection.

The genitourinary system (including the penis, epididymis, vas deferens, and testicles) will be inspected for any signs of disease during the physical. The checkup will include a check for varicoceles. Simply doing a physical examination will reveal their presence.

What Tests Are Done?

Your doctor may first do a semen analysis. The following are the outcomes that are decided by it:

  • Ejaculate sperm count or sperm volume.
  • pH indicates how acidic or basic a substance is.
  • Quantity of sperm in a given volume of semen, measured in millilitres.
  • Count of all the sperm in your ejaculate, or the total number of sperm in your sample.
  • Speed is the rate at which your sperm may move.
  • What degree of straightness your sperm have.
  • Sperm morphology refers to their size and form.
  • How quickly your semen becomes liquid is a measure of its viscosity.

The next step is a comprehensive sperm analysis, where your doctor will look at your sperm’s:

  • Capacity to continue existing; viability.
  • Quality and form; morphology.
  • Motility, the capacity of your sperm to swim to and fertilise an egg.

Alternative diagnostic procedures might consist of:

  • Quantification of leukocytospermia using the Endtz test.
  • The rigorous morphological categorization of Kruger.
  • Sperm evaluation using the World Health Organization’s morphological criteria.
  • Azoospermic specimens require specialised staining.
  • A biochemical analysis of fructose in sperm.
  • Tests for Antibodies Against Sperm (direct and indirect immunobead).
  • O2 radicals.
  • Analyzing the genetic material of sperm.

Which Healthcare Providers Diagnose Male Infertility?

If you’re having trouble conceiving, have your primary care doctor send you to a urologist with experience in male infertility. A reproductive endocrinologist may potentially be involved in your care.

To make a diagnosis of male infertility, what kinds of questions should a doctor ask?

  • When did you and your partner first start trying to start a family?
  • Have you ever conceived a child with a partner?
  • Can I ask whether you smoke? Drinker? Use any kind of unlawful substances?
  • What kinds of drugs do you take?
  • Do you have a job that puts you in contact with chemicals?
  • Have you ever suffered injury to your groyne, maybe from a vehicle accident?
  • Do you feel like you have a mental health problem, like depression?
  • Tell me about your health. Diabetes? Maybe it’s an autoimmune disease.
  • Can you recall a time when you were irradiated?