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Symptoms Of Male And Female Infertility: Causes & Treatment Of Fertility

Have you ever thought about what are the symptoms of male and female infertility? In most cases, having a baby is a straightforward and natural process.

On the other hand, for some couples, it may seem impossible to conceive. As a boy, your fertility is largely determined by the amount and quality of sperm you produce.

Due to the limited amount of your sperm and/or the poor quality of these sperm, it will be difficult, if not impossible, to conceive in most cases.

If you have been trying to conceive for more than 12 months without success and you are having sex at least twice a week, it is time to see a doctor about your options. If you are aware of any issues that may affect your baby’s ability to conceive

Symptoms Of Male And Female Infertility: Causes & Treatment Of Fertility

Causes Of Male Infertility 

Infertility can be caused by problems that interfere with sperm production or the way sperm travels through the body. There are medical tests that can be used to determine the source of the problem.

About two-thirds of infertile men have a problem where they produce insufficient amounts of sperm or sperm that do not function properly. About one in five infertile men suffer from another health condition, including those who have undergone sterilization but now want to become parents.

Obstacles (also called obstructions) in the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the penis can completely prevent you from ejaculating. There are also less common causes of infertility,

Such as: Sexual problems that interfere with the ability of semen to enter the vaginal tract (one in 100 infertile couples) Lack of hormones produced by the pituitary gland (a hormone controller in the brain) that affects the testicles Is (one in 100 infertile men) antibodies against sperm (proteins that fight sperm, found in one in 16 infertile men).

In most cases, sperm antibodies have no effect on a man’s ability to conceive, but in some cases, they can affect his fertility. In some cases, male infertility can be caused by a simple genetic mutation. 

Symptoms Of Male Infertility 

Symptoms of infertility in men can be difficult to diagnose. They will not be known until a boy decides to try to have a child. The symptoms of infertility depend on the cause.

These may include: Changes in hair growth rate Changes in one’s level of sexual desire Pain, bulge, or swelling in the testicles are all possible symptoms. Problems with the penis and ejaculation testicles that are small and strong

Causes of Women’s Infertility 

The most common cause of infertility in women is ovarian failure, which indicates that your ovaries do not produce eggs. The main cause is a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome.

Other factors can affect fertility, including: problems with your fallopian tubes, which are responsible for transporting eggs from your ovaries to your uterus. Sometimes a disease called infection or endometriosis can cause scar tissue to close your tubes, which can prevent you from getting pregnant.

Women who smoke are more likely to have reproductive problems. Being overweight or underweight can also be an important factor.

If an egg manages to find its way through your fallopian tubes, there are various factors that can prevent it from being implanted in your uterus.

Cervical mucosa can damage sperm or cause them to grow more slowly. Fertility in women decreases with age, especially over 35 years. Getting pregnant over the age of 45 is quite  unusual

Symptoms Of Women’s Infertility 

Menstruation and ovarian changes in women can be a sign of a disease that is associated with infertility in women. Among the signs and symptoms are: Periods that are out of the ordinary. The amount of bleeding is more or less than normal. Periods that are not regular.

The number of days passing between each period varies from month to month. There are no periods. You haven’t had a period in many years, or your period has stopped abruptly.

Periods that are difficult. Back pain, pelvic pain, and aches are all possible side effects. Some cases of infertility in women are associated with hormonal imbalances.

Symptoms that appear in this condition include: Skin changes, including an increase in acne, are common. Changes in a person’s sexual desire and desire cause very dark hair to grow on the lips, chest and chin. Hair loss or thinning hair is a common problem.

Weight gain is a problem. Other signs and symptoms of the disease that can lead to infertility include: The presence of milky white substance in the nipples has nothing to do with nursing.

There are many different factors that can cause infertility in women during sexual intercourse, and their symptoms vary.


If you have fertility issues, the therapy you receive will be determined by what is causing the issue and what is available from your local integrated care board (ICB).

  • Look for your local integrated care board (ICB).
  • Fertility treatment is classified into three types:
  • Medicines and surgical treatments that aid in conception, such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF)


Typical fertility medications include:

  • Clomifene – promotes the monthly release of an egg (ovulation) in women who do not ovulate frequently or cannot ovulate at all. Tamoxifen – an alternative to clomifene that may be recommended if you have ovulation issues.
  • Metformin is very effective for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
  • Gonadotrophins can assist induce ovulation in women and may increase male fertility.
  • Other forms of drugs used to induce ovulation in women include gonadotrophin-releasing hormone and dopamine agonists.
  • Some of these medications can induce nausea, vomiting, headaches, and hot flushes.

Consult your doctor for further information on the potential adverse effects of certain medications.

Surgical procedures

Several surgical techniques may be performed to evaluate reproductive issues and assist with fertility.

Fallopian Tube Surgery

If your fallopian tubes have become obstructed or scarred, surgery to repair them may be required.

Surgery can be performed to break up scar tissue in your fallopian tubes, allowing eggs to move through more easily.

The degree of the damage to your fallopian tubes will determine the success of surgery.

An ectopic pregnancy, which occurs when the fertilised egg implants outside the womb, is one of the possible risks of tubal surgery.

Endometriosis, Fibroids And PCOS

Endometriosis occurs when sections of the uterine lining begin to develop outside of the womb.

Endometriosis is frequently treated through laparoscopic surgery, which involves the destruction or removal of fluid-filled sacs known as cysts.

Success Rates of Fertility Treatments

It can also be used to remove submucosal fibroids, which are tiny uterine growths.

If ovulation medication has not worked for you if you have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a modest surgical procedure called laparoscopic ovarian drilling can be utilised.

This includes destroying a portion of the ovary with either heat or a laser.

Correcting An Epididymal Blockage And Surgery To Retrieve Sperm

The epididymis is a coil-like structure in the testicles that aids in sperm storage and movement.

Sometimes the epididymis gets clogged, inhibiting normal sperm ejaculation. If this is causing infertility, the obstruction can be removed surgically.

Surgical sperm extraction may be a possibility if you:

Have an obstruction that prevents sperm release

Were born without the sperm draining tube from the testicle (vas deferens)

Having had a vasectomy or a vasectomy reversal that failed

Both treatments take a few hours and are performed as outpatient procedures under local anesthesia.

On the same day, you will be informed of the quality of the tissue or sperm collected.

Assisted Conception

Intrauterine fertilisation (IUI)
IUI, also known as artificial insemination, involves putting sperm into the womb using a tiny plastic tube passing through the cervix.

First, sperm is collected and cleaned in a fluid. The top-quality specimens (those that move the quickest) are chosen.

IVF (in vitro fertilisation) (IVF)
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the process by which an egg is fertilized outside of the body. Fertility medication stimulates the ovaries to generate more eggs than usual.

In a laboratory, eggs are extracted from the ovaries and fertilised with sperm. The fertilized egg (embryo) is subsequently returned to the womb to develop and expand.

Donation of eggs and sperm
If you or your spouse is having difficulty conceiving, you may be able to get eggs or sperm from a donor. IVF is typically used for donor egg treatment.

Anyone who registered to give eggs or sperm after April 1, 2005, cannot stay anonymous and must reveal their name.

This is because, as an adult, a child born as a result of donated eggs or sperm has the legal right to learn the name of the donor (at age 18).

More information

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) website has further information about fertility treatment alternatives.

Eligibility For Fertility Treatment On The NHS

The NHS funds fertility therapy differently across the UK. In certain locations, treatment waiting lists might be quite extensive.

Eligibility conditions might also differ. A GP can advise you on your treatment eligibility, or you can contact your local integrated care board (ICB).

If your GP sends you to a specialist for additional testing, the NHS will cover the costs. For the first inquiry, all patients have the right to be sent to an NHS clinic.

Going Private

If you are having difficulty conceiving, you may wish to seek private therapy. This can be costly, and success is not guaranteed.

It is critical to select a private clinic with care.

You should investigate:

  • Which clinics are there?
  • Which therapies are available
  • The treatment success rates
  • The waiting list’s length the expenses

Request personalized, fully costed treatment plans that outline exactly what is covered, such as fees, scans, and any required medication.

When To See A Doctor?

If you are under 35 years of age and have been trying to conceive for over a year without success, you should see your doctor. Women over the age of 35 should consult their doctor after 6 months of trying.

It is possible to have blood, urine, and imaging tests to determine the reason you are not pregnant. Male sperm can be analyzed to determine the number of sperm as well as the general health of her sperm.

In some cases, your doctor may recommend that you see a reproductive endocrinologist. Infertility specialists are represented by the term “infertility specialist”. Throughout this process, you will be asked about your infertility symptoms as well as your medical history. 

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Preparing for your next doctor’s visit should include writing the following information and bringing it with you: Prescription Pharmaceuticals, Vitamins, Minerals, Supplements, and any other prescription medications that are purchased in this category are all in this category.

Included. How many times have you had unprotected sex, how long have you been trying, and when was the last time you tried to conceive, these are all questions to consider.

You may have noticed physical changes or other symptoms in your body. The dates of any previous operations or treatments, especially those that affect the reproductive system, should be noted.

Have you received any radiation or chemotherapy treatment? You must state how much you smoke, how much alcohol you use, and whether you use illegal drugs.

Any history of sexually transmitted infection (STDs) should be reported to you or any genetic problem or chronic disease, such as diabetes or thyroid disease, in your family.

Pay attention to your body. Inform your doctor as soon as you notice any symptoms. If you get an early diagnosis of infertility, you may have a better chance of getting pregnant. 

How Does The Doctor Determine If I Am Infertile?

Your doctor will review your medical history, medicines, sexual history, and sexual behaviors, such as how frequently you have sex, to determine whether you are infertile.

Men will be given a medical assessment as well as a sperm assay, which will determine the health of their sperm.

A woman’s testing starts with a medical history and physical exam, which includes a pelvic exam. The doctor next checks to see if they ovulate consistently and if their ovaries are producing eggs.

Overview of Fertility Treatments

Hormone levels are measured through blood testing. Ultrasound can be used to evaluate the ovaries and uterus, and a particular X-ray test can check the uterus and fallopian tubes.

In around 80% of couples, the reason of infertility is either an ovulation issue or a fallopian tube obstruction.

What Are The Treatments For Infertility?

Fertility in males is managed with:

If the reason is a varicocele (widening of the veins in the scrotum) or a blockage in the vas deferens, which transports sperm, surgery may be required.
Antibiotics are used to treat infections of the reproductive organs.
Medications and psychotherapy to address erection and ejaculation issues.
If the problem is a low or excessive amount of specific hormones, hormone therapies may be used.

Infertility in women is treated with:

Fertility medications and hormones that assist a woman to ovulate or restore hormone levels
Surgery to remove tissue that is interfering with conception (for example, endometriosis) or to unblock blocked fallopian tubes

In both men and women, infertility can be addressed through assisted reproductive technology or ART. There are several forms of ART:

  • IUI (intrauterine insemination): During ovulation, sperm is harvested and deposited directly within the woman’s uterus.
  • IVF (in vitro fertilization): Sperm and eggs are collected and combined in a laboratory. The fertilized egg will develop for 3 to 5 days. The embryo is then implanted in the woman’s uterus.
  • GIFT and ZIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer): The sperm and egg are gathered and promptly inserted in a fallopian tube. Both sperm and eggs are delivered into the fallopian tube via GIFT.