Banjhpan, meaning in English, is Infertility. Infertility is the meaning of the Urdu word, which is translated as “infertility.”
Bay Samri, Banjo Pan, and Osar Pan are all terms that are similar to Bay Samri. Barrenness, fruitlessness, impotence, and sterility are all terms that might be used to describe Infertility. Please refer to this page for other Kacha Translations in English.
If you haven’t gotten pregnant after trying for a year, you may have infertility. If you are a woman over the age of 35 and you have been trying unsuccessfully to conceive for the last six months, then you may have an infertility problem.
Infertility may also be diagnosed in women who are fertile but unable to bring a baby to term.
Primary infertility describes a lady who has never been able to conceive. A history of successful pregnancy in the past is required to identify a woman with secondary infertility.
Having difficulty conceiving is not something that just affects women. It’s not only women who can’t conceive. Both sexes have an equal risk of experiencing infertility.
The Office of Women’s Health estimates that 30% of infertility cases are caused by female factors and another 30% are caused by male factors.
The other 30% of instances might be due to a mix of male and female infertility, or they could have an unknown reason.
- Failure to conceive after trying for at least 12 months during periods of regular, unprotected sexual activity is considered infertility, a disorder of the male or female reproductive system.
- Millions of individuals of reproductive age across the globe struggle with infertility, which has repercussions for their loved ones and communities. Around the world, infertility affects anywhere from 48 million couples to 186 million people, according to estimates.
- The most prevalent causes of infertility in males are issues with sperm production, including aberrant morphology and motility, as well as difficulties with ejection of semen.
- Many different disorders affecting the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, and endocrine system may lead to female infertility.
- Both main and indirect causes of infertility exist. Those who have never gotten pregnant are said to suffer from primary infertility, whereas those who have once given birth to a child are said to have secondary infertility.
- Treatment for infertility includes both the detection of the problem and its correction, but fertility care goes beyond that. Most nations, especially those with lower and intermediate incomes, struggle to provide their citizens with equal and fair access to fertility treatment. In most countries with comprehensive health care coverage, reproductive health services are not a top priority.
Why Addressing Infertility Is Important?
Everyone has the inherent right to the greatest possible level of bodily and mental well-being. The decision to have children, when to have them, and how far apart they should be, is a very personal one that should be respected.
These fundamental human rights may be undermined by infertility. Therefore, ensuring people’s ability to start families through addressing infertility is crucial.
Infertility management and fertility care services may be necessary for many different kinds of people, including heterosexual couples, same-sex partners, older people, single people, and couples and individuals with certain medical conditions, like those who are HIV serodiscordant or who have survived cancer.
The impoverished, the single, the illiterate, the jobless, and other marginalized groups are disproportionately impacted by inequities and discrepancies in access to fertility care services.
Fighting infertility is one way to lessen the gender gap. While infertility affects both sexes, it is more often associated with women when they are in a romantic relationship with a guy.
Violence, divorce, social stigma, mental stress, melancholy, anxiety, and poor self-esteem are all common in infertile couples, but women in particular suffer from these negative societal effects due to their inability to conceive.
Fear of infertility may prevent women and men from using contraception in societies where there is a strong societal demand on women and men to prove their fertility by having children at a young age.
In such a context, it is crucial to implement educational and awareness-raising initiatives to increase people’s knowledge of the frequency and causes of both infertility and childlessness.
In most nations, it is difficult to find effective treatments for infertility, and more harder to afford them.
However, in many countries, infertility diagnosis and treatment are not a top priority for national population and development programs or reproductive health initiatives, and hence, are not funded by public health care.
Additionally, even for nations that are actively addressing the needs of persons with infertility, important challenges include a lack of educated workers, the absence of the required equipment and infrastructure, and the present high prices of treatment drugs.
Despite the fact that ARTs like in vitro fertilization (IVF) have been around for more than three decades and have resulted in the birth of more than five million children worldwide, these methods remain largely unavailable, inaccessible, and expensive in many parts of the world, particularly low and middle-income countries (LMIC).
Access to safe and effective fertility treatment is unevenly distributed, yet this is an issue that policymakers might help address.
In order to reduce the burden of expensive and inaccessible therapies, health policy must acknowledge that infertility is a preventable condition.
There are policy and programmatic interventions that all governments can implement to reduce infertility, including raising awareness of fertility in comprehensive sexuality education programs; promoting healthy lifestyles to reduce behavioral risks; preventing complications of unsafe abortion, postpartum sepsis, and abdominal/pelvic surgery; and addressing environmental toxins.
Third-party reproduction and assisted reproductive technology (ART) need enabling laws and regulations to provide equal access for all people, prevent discrimination, and advance human rights for all participants.
Once fertility rules are in place, it is crucial to keep an eye on how they are being carried out and make sure that services are always becoming better.
The World Health Organization (WHO) agrees that fertility care services, as well as other forms of family planning, are essential to a healthy reproductive system.
The World Health Organization (WHO) is dedicated to tackling infertility and fertility treatment by doing the following because of the significance and influence infertility has on people’s quality of life and well-being:
- To investigate the causes of infertility and the prevalence of the condition worldwide via collaborative epidemiological and etiological studies.
- By participating in and promoting policy discourse with nations throughout the globe, we can place the issue of infertility into a more receptive legal and legislative framework.
- Facilitating the collection of information about infertility’s impact in order to guide service planning and funding.
- Consistent with international benchmarks for high-quality reproductive care, we are developing recommendations for the detection, evaluation, and management of male and female infertility.
- Other normative products, such as the World Health Organization’s laboratory handbook for the analysis and processing of human sperm, are also regularly revised and updated.
- Strengthening political will, access, and health system capacity to offer fertility care worldwide via collaboration with key stakeholders such as academic centres, ministries of health, other UN agencies, NSAs, and other partners.
- Giving individual countries the assistance they need to create or improve their fertility policies and services.
Infertility Causes in Men
Semen is the milky fluid expelled by a man’s penis during an orgasmic fit. Semen is made up of two components: fluid and sperm. The liquid is produced by the prostate gland, the seminal vesicle, and other sex glands, among other sources.
The testicles are responsible for the production of sperm.
When a man ejaculates and releases sperm via the penis, the seminal fluid, also known as semen, aids in transporting the sperm to the egg, allowing him to get pregnant.
It is possible to encounter the following difficulties:
Low sperm count: The male ejaculates just a tiny amount of sperm in his sperm test. A sperm count of less than 15 million is deemed inadequate. Approximately one-third of couples have problems conceiving because their sperm count is poor.
Low sperm mobility (motility) is a condition in which the sperm cannot “swim” as effectively as they should to reach the egg.
The sperm has an abnormal form in other cases, making it more difficult to migrate and fertilize an egg.
Conception may be problematic if the sperm does not have the proper form or if they do not move as quickly and correctly as they should towards the egg. It is estimated that up to 2 percent of guys from Trusted Source have poor sperm. Abnormal sperm may be unable to transport the sperm adequately.
This may occur as a consequence of:
A medical condition: This might be anything from a testicular infection to cancer or even a procedure.
Overheated testicles may be caused by several factors, including an undescended testicle, a varicocele (or varicose vein) in the scrotum, the use of saunas or hot tubs, wearing tight clothing, and working in high temperatures. ( Banjhpan in English ) Hormonal imbalance: Hypogonadism, for example, may result in a testosterone deficit, which is dangerous.
Banjhpan / Infertility causes in Women
- Cigarette smoking dramatically raises your chances of becoming infertile.
- Age: Around 32 years, the capacity to conceive begins to wane progressively.
- Cigarette smoking: Cigarette smoking raises the chance of Infertility in both men and women by a large margin, and it has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of reproductive treatments. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy raises the likelihood of miscarriage. Passive smoking has also been related to decreased fertility in other studies.
- Alcohol: Drinking any quantity of alcohol might hurt your ability to conceive.
- Obesity or overweight: Both women and men are at increased risk of Infertility if they are obese or overweight.
Eating disorders: If an eating disorder results in significant weight loss, reproductive issues may occur.
- Diet: A deficiency in folic acid, iron, zinc, and vitamin B-12 may hurt fertility. Females at risk, particularly those who consume vegan foods, should see their doctor about taking supplements.
- Exercise: Excessive or insufficient physical activity may cause and exacerbate reproductive difficulties.
Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), and it may cause damage to a woman’s fallopian tubes and inflammation in a man’s scrotum. Some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may also result in Infertility.
Pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, such as lead, and solvents have all been associated with reproductive issues in men and women exposed to these substances in the past. According to the results of mouse research, the chemicals in common household detergents may harm fertility. a Reliable Source
Stress on the mind may interfere with female ovulation and male sperm production and cause a reduction in sexual activity.
Medications and medical conditions
Some medical disorders might harm fertility.
According to the latest research, ovulation abnormalities seem to be the most prevalent cause of infertility in women.
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary every month. It is possible that the eggs may never be released or that they will only be released in specific cycles.
Any of the following may cause ovulation abnormalities:
- Premature ovarian failure is defined as when the ovaries quit functioning before 40.
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is when the ovaries misbehave, and ovulation does not always occur.
- Hyperprolactinemia: If a woman’s prolactin levels are high, it may interfere with ovulation and reproductive ability even if she is not pregnant or lactating.
- The risk increases with age; thus, the older a woman is.
- Thyroid problems: An overactive or underactive thyroid gland may result in a hormonal imbalance, according to the American Thyroid Association.
- Chronic illnesses, such as AIDS or cancer, are examples of chronic illnesses.
Fertility Treatment In Men
The underlying cause of the problem will determine the treatment for Infertility.
Medication, behavioral techniques, or a combination of the two may be used to promote fertility in men with erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.
Varicocele: Surgically eliminating a varicose vein in the scrotum may be beneficial in treating this condition.
Blocked ejaculatory duct: Sperm from the testicles may be collected straight from the testicles and then injected directly into an egg in a laboratory setting.
Retrograde ejaculation is the process of extracting sperm from the bladder and injecting it straight into an egg in a laboratory setting.
It is possible to repair a clogged epididymis with surgery in some circumstances. Located in the testicles, the epididymis is a coil-like structure that assists in the storage and transportation of sperm.
Fertility Treatment In Women
Clomifene (Clomid, Serophene) is a medication that helps women who ovulate sporadically or not at all due to PCOS or another disease ovulate more often—increasing luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) production by the pituitary gland results from this treatment (LH).
Metformin (Glucophage): If Clomifene is ineffective, metformin (Glucophage) may be an option for women with PCOS, particularly when the condition is associated with insulin resistance.
FSH and LH are both present in human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), which is available under the brand name Repronex. Patients who cannot ovulate due to a problem with the pituitary gland may benefit from receiving this medication as an injection.
The hormone that stimulates the formation of follicles (Gonal-F, Bravelle): This hormone is generated by the pituitary gland and is responsible for controlling estrogen synthesis by the ovaries. It stimulates the ovaries, causing them to produce mature egg follicles.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl): When combined with clomiphene, hMG, and FSH, this hormone may cause a follicle to ovulate and produce a pregnancy.
Analogs of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH): These medications may be used to aid women who ovulate too early—before the lead follicle has matured—while undergoing hormone replacement therapy. In this way, the pituitary gland receives a continual supply of Gn-RH, which modifies the synthesis of hormones, enabling the doctor to stimulate follicle development using FSH.
Bromocriptine (Parlodel) is a medication that decreases the production of prolactin. Prolactin is a hormone that promotes milk production in nursing women. Women who have high levels of prolactin outside of pregnancy and breastfeeding may have irregular ovulation cycles and other reproductive issues outside of these periods.