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Azoospermia (No Sperm Count) | sperm/o | Types, Causes, Prevention

sperm/o, also known as no sperm count, is one of the most common problems that patients of azoospermia have faced. Well, this is what this article is all about. In this article, we will take an in-depth look at all aspects of it, and now if that sounds interesting to you, let us begin this article. 

Azoospermia (No Sperm Count) | sperm/o | Types, Causes, Tests


Azoospermia is a condition where a man’s ejaculate contains no sperm. A blockage can cause sexual dysfunction in the reproductive tract, hormonal problems, ejaculation issues, and testicular structure or function issues. Treatable and reversible causes of infertility exist. Other reasons may make it possible to obtain live sperm for assisted reproduction.

How common is azoospermia?

About 1% of all men and 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia.

What are the parts of the male reproductive system?

The following organs make up the male reproductive system:

  • Spermatogenesis is how testicles, or the testicles, produce sperm (male reproductive cells).
  • Most of the tissue in the testes is composed of tiny tubes called seminiferous tubules.
  • Mature sperm are stored in the epididymis, a structure on the back of each testicle.
  • The muscular tube that extends from the epididymis into the pelvis and then turns to enter the seminal vesicle is known as the vascular deferens.
  • Most liquid ingredients in semen are produced and stored in the seminal vesicle. Vessel: The seminal duct is formed by narrowing the cyst and connecting it to the vagina.
  • When the seminal vesicle duct and the vas deferens unite, an ejaculatory duct is formed. The urethra is connected to the ejaculatory duct in the prostate gland.

aspermia medical term

  • The urethra is the tube that connects the vas deferens and the bladder, allowing urine and semen to be excreted through the penis.
  • Sperm enter the vas deferens from the testicles and epididymis during ejaculation. The sperm moves forward as the vas deferens contract (tightens). Seminal fluid moves toward the urethra as the seminal vesicle secretions are added. Seminal fluid travels through the prostate gland before it reaches the urethra, mixed with a milky liquid to form semen. Finally, the semen is expelled from the penis via the urethra.

It is considered an average sperm count of 15 million/mL or more. In men who suffer from oligospermia, the sperm concentration is below 15 million per milliliter (mL).

Are there different types of azoospermia?

Obstructive azoospermia: For this type of azoospermia, the epididymis, vas deferens, or other parts of your reproductive tract are either blocked or missing connections. Because you’re producing sperm, but it’s being blocked from an exit, you don’t have any sperm in your semen that can be counted on. 

Nonobstructive azoospermia: If you suffer from this sort of azoospermia, your sperm production is either low or non-existent because of a fault in the structure or function of your testicles. 

What are the causes of azoospermia?

To understand the causes of azoospermia, it is essential to know what type you have. In other words, an obstruction or nonobstructive sources might be the root of the problem. 

Obstructions in the vas deferens, the epididymis, and ejaculatory ducts are the most prevalent causes of azoospermia. Blockages in these places might be caused by: 

  • Damage or harm to any of these regions.
  • Infections.
  • Inflammation.
  • There have been previous pelvic procedures.
  • Cyst formation is a possible outcome.

The operation of a vasectomy (planned permanent contraceptive method in which the vas deferens are cut or clamped to prevent the flow of sperm).

clogged vas deferens

A genetic abnormality results in the absence or faulty development of the vas deferens, which results in the semen being stopped by a buildup of thick vas deferens secretions.

Nonobstructive causes of azoospermia include: ( sperm/o )

Genetic factors. Unable to conceive may be caused by a variety of genetic mutations, including as
If left untreated, Kallmann syndrome is a genetic (inherited) condition that may lead to infertility in women.
An additional X chromosome is seen in males with Klinefelter’s syndrome (making his chromosomal makeup XXY instead of XY). As a consequence, many couples struggle with infertility, as well as sexual immaturity and academic challenges.

Male infertility is caused by Y chromosome deletion, which removes parts of genes necessary for producing healthy sperm from the male chromosome.

Endocrinological problems such as hypogonadism and hyperprolactinemia are among the most common. Ejaculation issues are common, such as retrograde ejaculation, in which the semen enters the bladder.

Causes of the testes include: ( sperm/o )

  • The Anorchia (absence of the testicles).
  • Cryptorchidism (testicles have not dropped into the scrotum).
  • A disease that exclusively affects the Sertoli cells (testicles fail to produce living sperm cells).
  • A halt to spermatogenesis (testicles fail to produce fully mature sperm cells).
  • A sexually transmitted disease caused by mumps (inflamed testicles caused by mumps in late puberty).
  • Torsion of the testicles.
  • Tumors.

Certain drugs that affect sperm production might cause adverse reactions—using radioactive materials in therapy. Diabetes, cirrhosis, and renal failure are all examples of diseases. The condition is varicocele (veins coming from the testicle are dilated or widened, impeding sperm production).

How can azoospermia be prevented? 

Genetic disorders that induce azoospermia have no recognized cure. If a genetic mutation doesn’t cause your azoospermia, you may minimize your risk by taking these steps: 

  • Avoid doing anything that might harm the reproductive system.
  • Take precautions to avoid irradiation.
  • Learn about the dangers and advantages of any drugs you take if they affect your sperm production.
  • Do not expose your testes to high temperatures for an extended time.

What is the long-term outlook for those with azoospermia? 

The prognosis of azoospermia varies depending on the reason. Azoospermia may be reversed in many cases. Your healthcare team and you will collaborate to determine what’s causing your azoospermia and how to treat it.

It is typically curable if a hormonal issue or an obstruction causes azoospermia. However, if the problem is testicular dysfunction, it is still feasible to get viable sperm for in vitro fertilization.